In response to the burden and resistance issue layout philosophy (LRFD), this booklet is the results of a five-year study attempt lower than AASHTO's nationwide Cooperative street learn application (NCHRP) undertaking 12-42, and a persisted attempt via AASHTO technical committees. This significant step in more desirable bridge layout and extra actual research is predicted to steer to bridges showing improved serviceability, more suitable long term maintainability, and extra uniform degrees of safeguard. because the First version used to be released in 1994, the provisions have persisted to be up-to-date and stronger in line with carrying on with study and the event of the consumer neighborhood. the hot requirements were systematically validated in trial designs and feature now been applied by way of all 50 states, with forty eight states absolutely carried out.
integrated during this digital version are the 2008 and 2009 intervening time Revisions. Following every one bankruptcy the revisions are pointed out in addition to associated through the complete e-book the place on hand. See the replaced and Deleted Articles sections for a whole record of adjustments to every part.
Preface and Abbreviated desk of Contents
desk of Contents
replaced and Deleted Articles, 2007
replaced and Deleted Articles, 2008
replaced and Deleted Articles, 2009
Section 1. Introduction
Section 2. basic layout and site Features
Section three. rather a lot and cargo Factors
Section four. Structural research and Evaluation
Section five. Concrete Structures
Section 6. metal Structures
Section 7. Aluminum Structures
Section eight. wooden Structures
Section nine. Decks and Deck Systems
Section 10. Foundations
Section eleven. Abutments, Piers, and Walls
Section 12. Buried buildings and Tunnel Liners
Section thirteen. Railings
Section 14. Joints and Bearings
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Additional resources for AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Customary U.S. Units with 2008 and 2009 U.S. Edition Interim Revisions
Spread footings on scour-resistant rock shall be designed and constructed to maintain the integrity of the supporting rock. Deep foundations with footings shall be designed to place the top of the footing below the estimated contraction scour depth where practical to minimize obstruction to flood flows and resulting local scour. Even lower elevations should be considered for pile-supported footings where the piles could be damaged by erosion and corrosion from exposure to stream currents. Where conditions dictate a need to construct the top of a footing to an elevation above the streambed, attention shall be given to the scour potential of the design.
Duplication is a violation of applicable law. 2-20 AASHTO LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS conditions; The effect of any proposed channel changes; The effect of aggregate mining or other operations in the channel; Potential changes in the rates or volumes of runoff due to land use changes; The effect of natural geomorphic stream pattern changes on the proposed structure; and The effect of geomorphic changes on existing structures in the vicinity of, and caused by, the proposed structure. For unstable streams or flow conditions, special studies shall be carried out to assess the probable future changes to the plan form and profile of the stream and to determine countermeasures to be incorporated in the design, or at a future time, for the safety of the bridge and approach roadways.
2012 by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. All rights reserved. Duplication is a violation of applicable law. 2—Inspectability Inspection ladders, walkways, catwalks, covered access holes, and provision for lighting, if necessary, shall be provided where other means of inspection are not practical. Where practical, access to permit manual or visual inspection, including adequate headroom in box sections, shall be provided to the inside of cellular components and to interface areas, where relative movement may occur.