By Kerstin Skog, Jan Alexander
Assessing the hazards posed to shoppers by means of acrylamide and different in all likelihood carcinogenic and genotoxic compounds is a concern for the meals undefined. This e-book provides learn within the quarter, discussing the mechanisms of formation of detrimental compounds in the course of warmth therapy, the research of unsafe compounds, how you can determine the hazards and novel the right way to minimise their formation in nutrition items.
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Additional resources for Acrylamide and other hazardous compounds in heat-treated foods
However, in cereal foods, including bread, the main determinant of acrylamide formation is free asparagine. , 2004). Further evidence of the importance of asparagine was furnished by adding the enzyme asparaginase to the model doughs, that afforded a significant reduction of acrylamide (Weisshaar, 2004). , 2004; BraÊthen and Knutsen, 2005). Overall, the studies conducted so far indicate that the amount of asparagine in the raw materials and ingredients, in particular cereal flour, is a key determinant of the formation of acrylamide during baking.
IQ-type HAAs are highly mutagenic and several (MeIq, MeIQx, PhIP) have been classified as possible human carcinogens and one (IQ) a probable carcinogen by the IARC (Nursten, 2005). The Maillard reaction 17 Fig. 9 Structures of some heterocyclic aromatic amines found in cooked foods. The nonIQ-type HAAs do not involve creatinine in their formation and result from the high-temperature treatment of amino acids, such as tryptophan or glutamic acid. Carbolines are formed by the pyrolysis of tryptophan, either free or protein bound (Friedman and Cuq, 1988).
If the amino acid is cysteine, Strecker degradation can lead to the production of hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and acetaldehyde, while methionine will yield methanethiol. These compounds, together with carbonyl compounds produced in the Maillard reaction, provide intermediates for reactions giving rise to important aroma compounds, including sulphur-containing compounds such as thiophenes, thiazoles, trithiolanes, thianes, thienothiophenes and furanthiols and disulfides (Mottram and Mottram, 2002).