By R. Heitefuss (auth.), R. K. S. Wood (eds.)
A NATO complex examine Institute on "Active Defence Mechanisms in crops" used to be held at Cape Sounion, Greece, 21 April - three may possibly 1981. It succeeded the same Institute held at Porte Conte, Sardinia in 1975 on "Specificity in Plant ailments. " What are lively defence mechanisms within the context of plant sickness during which a plant, the host, will be broken through a pathogen? Defence mechanisms include houses of the host that lessen this harm. The mechanisms are passive after they are self sufficient of the pathogen. they're lively after they stick to alterations within the host as a result of the pathogen. hence for a fungal pathogen, mobilephone partitions of a better plant that are lignified earlier than an infection will be a passive defence mechanism in the event that they diminished harm via impeding development of the fungus. cellphone partitions recognized to turn into lignified as a reaction to the pathogen will be an energetic defence mechanism if it have been verified that this reaction reduced harm. The papers and discussions at this complicated examine Institute have been approximately lively defence mechanisms in greater vegetation, ordinarily econo mically very important crop vegetation, opposed to fungi, micro organism and viruses as pathogens. Taking the microorganisms first it's a truism yet person who bears repeating that even if vegetation customarily develop in shut organization with a large choice of fungi and micro organism, usually of varieties that may be pathogens, they infrequently develop into diseased, at the very least no longer sufficiently for you to allure notice.
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Extra resources for Active Defense Mechanisms in Plants
I • afl~edenltyl'll1:lplonlcel! ATION sIowdlSClgCl/'llzallOI'I rI pbnl membrnres I rflonlallQl'l 01 hJnged gl7Nth Figure 2 Proposed scheme (based on ultrastructural observations) of events during the infection process of cowpea rust (Uromyces phaseoli var. vignae) which could lead to the observed resistance or susceptibility of host and non-host plants. ) determine the subsequent progress of infection. C. (1974), Physiological Plant Pathology Vol. 4, pp. 403 414. Copyright by Academic Press Inc.
I like to envisage this as meaning that susceptibitity is a situation where the fungus has 'grown right through' the evolutionary history of its relationship with a host. Unfortunately Heath was not able to show that each of the switching points in the U. phaseoZi ·vignae-cowpea interaction re- 27 STRUCTURAL VIEW OF ACTIVE DEFENCE -.. RENT PlANT RESPO'IISE ", and pian! IoYIllI CI'I I ~ 10)[1/'1 pnlsanl .. I • afl~edenltyl'll1:lplonlcel! ATION sIowdlSClgCl/'llzallOI'I rI pbnl membrnres I rflonlallQl'l 01 hJnged gl7Nth Figure 2 Proposed scheme (based on ultrastructural observations) of events during the infection process of cowpea rust (Uromyces phaseoli var.
PhaseoZi vignae 3 and many other similar applications are also possible in studies of active defence. It may also be possible to use EDX to analyse changes in the distribution of ions between host or parasite cytoplasm and organelles as a precise indication of the loss of membrane integrity associated with cell death, providing that the problems of fixation of soluble substances can be overcome (see below) • In micro-autoradiography (9) radioactive isotopes introduced STRUCTURAL VIEW OF ACTIVE DEFENCE 33 into specimens are located by placing a thin layer of photographic emulsion over the section to produce a latent image which is seen as grains of silver.