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America's First Frogman: The Draper Kauffman Story by Elizabeth Kauffman Bush

By Elizabeth Kauffman Bush

Even if undesirable eyesight saved him from receiving a fee within the U.S. army while he graduated from the Naval Academy in 1933, Draper Kauffman grew to become a hero of underwater demolition in global battle II and went directly to a special naval occupation. this present day Admiral Kauffman is remembered because the nation's first frogman and the daddy of the military Seals. His amazing wartime carrier disarming enemy bombs, developing bomb disposal faculties, and organizing and major the Navy's first demolition devices is the focal point of this biography written via Kauffman's sister. Elizabeth Kauffman Bush, who is also the aunt of President George W. Bush, attracts on relations papers in addition to army files to inform Kauffman's tale for the 1st time. made up our minds to shield the reason for freedom lengthy earlier than the U.S. ever entered the struggle, Kauffman used to be taken prisoner via the Germans as an ambulance motive force in France, and after his free up joined the Royal army to defuse delayed-action bombs in the course of the London blitz. After Pearl Harbor his eyes have been deemed enough and he used to be given a fee within the U.S. Naval Reserve. along with his event, he used to be requested to set up an underwater demolition tuition in fortress Pierce, Florida, the place he individually knowledgeable males to defuse bombs and neutralize different submerged hazards. His males have been despatched to demolish the stumbling blocks put in via the Nazis at Normandy, and Kauffman himself led underwater demolition groups within the Pacific at Saipan, Tinian, and Guam and later directed UDT operations at Iwo Jima and Okinawa. His males consider him as a very good chief who led by way of instance. He expert and fought along them, impervious to possibility. as a result excessive criteria he set when you grew to become "frogmen,"thousands of yankee lives have been kept in global battle II, Korea, and Vietnam. Draper Kauffman's early demonstrated UDT traditions of perseverance, teamwork, and a long-lasting brotherhood of guys of outstanding braveness is carried on through army Seals. this is often his legacy to the U.S. army and his nation.

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S. Virginia. Not just France, Robinson said, but “every maritime power, according to its means, has considered it indispensable to clothe its Military navy in Iron Armour,” yet because the greatest of these (and the nearest to England) had “perfected and prepared a large number of [seagoing] Ships,” Robinson recapitulated the basic decision of the Admiralty that such ironclads “can only be met on equal terms by a similar description of Force . . ” Because the Controller maintained “that our present large force afloat, and the reliefs that it requires, are insuperable objections to any considerable reductions in the expenditure of Wages in our Dock Industry and Conversion Problems 25 Yards,” the natural conclusion would be to favor wooden conversions into ironclads in the government facilities.

This next step, the introduction of the wooden-hulled conversions of the Royal Oak class, was regarded as an improvement on the Valiant, with a fully protected battery (and along the waterline), but not so much in terms of range as the Warrior, for his submission added only that “she would be a sufficiently good Sea Boat to go to the Mediterranean if required. . ”20 However, with wooden hulls, the ships of this class could be seen as more free ranging because there was no worry of the excess marine fouling that was endemic to iron hulls (which could not be coppered because of the corrosive electrolytic reaction).

J. Laird, Sons & Co. J. Samuda & Co. £321,117 £295,295 £329,393 £172,677 £207,212 £73,109 £68,188 The situation with the Minotaur-class Northumberland was the worst. “The Contractors have been repeatedly written to and urged to expedite this Ship, but without effect. 31 A letter to Thames Iron regarding the “backward state” of the Minotaur met with a list of numbered complaints, which included the alterations to the ship’s design and construction ordered subsequently by the Admiralty. These involved the changing of a screw that could be raised while under sail, as with the first-generation ships, to a fixed one, requiring the reworking of the complicated stern posts, and changes in the armor itself in proportion to its wood backing.

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