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Chemicals Via Higher Plant Bioengineering by Paul P. Kolodziejczyk, Fereidoon Shahidi (auth.), Fereidoon

By Paul P. Kolodziejczyk, Fereidoon Shahidi (auth.), Fereidoon Shahidi, Paul Kolodziejczyk, John R. Whitaker, Agustin Lopez Munguia, Glenn Fuller (eds.)

Food and uncooked fabric for its creation used to be regularly produced through the normal agriculture. nevertheless, novel chemical compounds have been synthetic within the laboratory or extracted from plant and animal resources. notwithstanding, because the international inhabitants is progressively in­ creasing, there's a lessen in conventional agriculture productiveness and issues also are expressed over the wear inflicted to the surroundings and regulations that would be en­ pressured in meals creation. even as, there's an expanding call for for prime qual­ ity agricultural items in addition to for meals elements regarding either the normal or newly stumbled on nutrition or phytochemicals. developments and developments,~n the realm of plant biotechnology and bioengineering has allowed manipulation of genes' !lnd/or insertion of recent genes, therefore construction of trans­ genic crops. ranging from the advent of agronomic features, rather tension resis­ tance to diversified environmental components, technique and sensory features, foodstuff caliber and construction of novel kinds of plant-based items via genetic engineering, biotechnology is altering the,;agriculture and the concept that of construction of plant-ba~~d uncooked fabrics. expanding awareness is being paid on learn for construction of crops !pat provides a big selection of nutrition and non-food items. probably the 1st non-food pro,d­ uct that plant biotechnology might in attaining is creation of enormous scale custom-designed business oils, however the checklist of chemical substances is lengthy, ranging" from oils and particular triacyl­ glycerols to biopolymers, enzymes, blood parts, amo~g others.

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In order to achieve this, it is probably best to take a combined biochemical and genetical approach; particularly since some of the genes regulating such characters may not necessarily encode readily identifiable enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, but rather regulatory proteins such as transcription factors. The quality, ie the fatty acid composition, of a seed oil is obviously very important for the down-stream processors of the crop, eg the seed crushers and oil refiners. However, an equally important attribute is the oil yield of the crop concerned.

U, Lem N. ; Kluwer: Dordrecht, 1997; pp 6-10. ; Heimer, Y. M. Biosynthesis of eicosapentaenoic acid in the microalga Porphyridium cruentum. I: The use of externally supplied fatty acids. Lipids 1996,31, 1277-1282. Somerville, C. The physical map of an Arabidopsis chromosome. Trends in Plant Sci 1996, 1, 2. ; Williamson, G. Dietary glucosinolates as blocking agents against carcinogenesis: glucosinolate breakdown products assessed by induction of quinone reductase activity in murine hepalclc7 cells.

These compounds are responsible for the astringent flavor of the popular condiment, mustard, and also for the highly characteristic odor and flavor of Brassica vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage and cauliflower. Glucosinolate breakdown products have also been found to have important anticarcinogenic roles both in epidemiological studies (Block et aI, 1992) and in laboratory-based feeding studies (Tawfig et aI, 1995; Zhang et aI, 1994). IMPACT OF GENOMICS The application of genomics research is now having a particularly strong impact on our ability to manipulate both simple and complex genetic traits responsible for factors such as oil quality in crops.

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