By Ethan Cochrane
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Additional resources for Cladistics (Method of Classifying Species into Groups)
Avoid homoplasies A homoplasy is a character that is shared by multiple species due to some cause other than common ancestry. The two main types of homoplasy are convergence (appearance of the same character in at least two distinct lineages) and reversion (the return to an ancestral character). Use of homoplasies when building a cladogram is sometimes unavoidable but is to be avoided when possible. svg Cladogram-example2-e... Cladogram-example2 Cladogram-example2 A well known example of homoplasy due to convergent evolution would be the character, "presence of wings".
Goodrich also opined that the name Reptilia should be abandoned once the phylogeny of the reptiles would be better known. The lack of compatibility of his scheme with the existing rank-based classifications (despite agreement on the phylogeny in all but details), and the lack of a method of phylogenetics at this time, are the most likely reasons why Goodrich's suggestions were largely ignored. The principle that only clades (monophyletic taxa – an ancestor plus all its descendants) should be formally named became popular in the second half of the 20th century.
Myriapoda phylogeny Neoaves Alternative ... Outgroup Papilionoidea Phylogenetic-Groups-... Using different algorithms on a single data set can sometimes yield different "best" cladograms, because each algorithm may have a unique definition of what is "best". Because of the astronomical number of possible cladograms, algorithms cannot guarantee that the solution is the overall best solution. A nonoptimal cladogram will be selected if the program settles on a local minimum rather than the desired global minimum.