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Additional info for Invertebrates
The synapomorphies are markers that identify specific places in the tree where new monophyletic taxa arise. For phylogenetic systematists, a phylogeny consists of a genealogical branching pattern expressed as a cladogram. Each split or dichotomy produces a pair of newly derived taxa called sister taxa, or sister groups (for example, sister species). Sister groups always share an immediate common ancestor. 5, set W is the sis*Parsimony is a method of logic in which economy in reasoning is sought.
In schemes B and C, all taxa are monophyletic. Notice that scheme C requires four fewer taxonomic names than scheme B. 6). In other words, birds originated from the branch of reptiles that also gave rise to the crocodilians. By cladistic methodology (on genealogical grounds), birds and crocodilians should therefore be ranked together, separate from the “other reptiles” (phylogenetic systematists recognize such a group, calling it the Archosauria), or birds should be classified with “reptiles” and the definition of that group expanded to include birds (phylogenetic systematists also recognize this grouping, often referring to it as the Sauropsida, or Reptilomorpha).
126: 1–25. Felsenstein, J. 2002. Inferring Phylogenies. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA. Frizzell, D. L. 1933. Terminology of types. Am. Midland Nat. 14(6): 637–668. ] CLASSIFICATION, SYSTEMATICS, AND PHYLOGENY UNCORRECTED PAGE PROOFS Gould, S. J. and R. C. Lewontin. 1979. The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: A critique of the adaptationist programme. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B 205: 581–598. Hall, B. K. 1994. Homology. the Hierarchical Basis of Comparativve Biology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.