By Andrew C. Gould
Read or Download Origins of Liberal Dominance: State, Church, and Party in Nineteenth-Century Europe PDF
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Extra resources for Origins of Liberal Dominance: State, Church, and Party in Nineteenth-Century Europe
Governments were nearly always supported by a joint liberal and prochurch majority and were typically opposed by a fluid "party of movement;" political Catholics did not oppose liberals as such (Stengers 1965). Successfol Reform and Conditional Defeat in Belgium 29 The consensus position extended even to the issue that would later drive liberals and political Catholics apart, the role of the church in education. 1 According to this view, priestly control of religious instruction best insured socially necessary moral guidance.
The outcomes in this phase involved various levels of mass support for liberal parties and distinct degrees of success or failure in establishing liberal political regimes. Organization of the Argument I seek to explain varying outcomes across four countries. This book thus examines changes over time in each case while also placing the cases in comparative perspective. Table 2 permits one to see the basic outlines of each case over the entire period and in comparison with the others. Since the steps in the argument are the same for each case, the elements from the previous figure serve as the row labels in table 2.
Much of the story of liberalism revolves around a central irony regarding the relative strengths of the two liberal factions. Doctrinaire liberals dominated the parliamentary faction of the party (the 1883 split giving 55 seats to the doctrinaires and just seven to the progressives was typical). This extreme imbalance in elected officials reflected the predilection of the narrow electorate. Among the politically active but disenfranchised, however, the progressives gained strength quickly. Progressives organized massive public demonstrations in the larger urban areas, notably in Brussels.